Senin, 04 Februari 2019
Greeting (Ungkapan Salam) Ungkapan sapaan/salam dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu Formal dan Informal Greeting. Formal greeting biasanya digunakan pada situasi resmi formal atau belum familiar sedangkan Informal Greeting digunakan pada situasi santai, biasanya sudah familiar atau kenal dengan lawan bicara dan tidak resmi. Formal Greetings Good morning Good day/noon Good afternoon Good evening Responses Good morning Good day/noon Good afternoon Good evening Meaning - Selamat pagi - Selamat Siang(jam12) -Selamat Siang -Selamat petang/sore/malam Informal Greetings Hi Hello How are you? How is life? How do you do? How is everything with you? How are you doing Nice to meet you Responses Hi Hello I’m fine Not bad, thanks How do you do? Pretty well. Thanks I am very well thanks Nice to meet you, too Meaning - Hai - Halo - Bagaimana kabarnya?Baik-baik saja - Bagaimana kabarnya?baik saja, terima kasih Apa Kabar - Bagaimana kabarnya denganmu?baik-baik ja terima kasih - Bagaimana kabarmu? Saya baik-baik saja terima kasih - Senang berjumpa denganmu/senang berjumpa denganmu juga 2. Leave taking/partings Sama halnya dengan Greeting di atas, Ungkapan Pamitan/perpisahan juga terdiri dari Formal dan informal. Formal Partings Good night Nice to see you It’s nice to meet you Good bye Responses Good night Nice to see you, too Nice to meet you, too Good bye Meaning Selamat malam/tidur Senang berjumpa denganmu == Selamat tinggal Informal Partings Bye Bye-bye See you later See you tomorrow Good luck Take care Responses Bye Bye-bye See you See you Thank you You too Meaning Selamat tinggal == Sampai jumpa lagi Sampai ketemu lagi besok Semoga berhasil Terima kasih Hati-hati di jalan Kamu juga Catatan : 1. Good morning digunakan dari jam 00.00 s/d 12.00 (Jam 00 dini hari sampai dengan 12 siang) 2. Good day/noon diucapkan jam 12.00 3. Good afternoon digunakan dari setelah jam 12.00 s/d 18.00 4. Good Evening dipakai dari jam 18.00 s/d 24.00(00.00) See the video below Lat soal klik d bawah ini
Minggu, 27 Januari 2019
Descriptive Text The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text Using attributive and identifying process. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Using simple present tense Examples and structures of the text MacQuarie University Identification Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40thanniversary. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site. Example of Description A. My Friend’s New Shoes I have a close Friend. She is beautiful, attractive and trendy. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Recently, she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This shoes really matches on her. Her new blowfish women’s shoes are wonderful. When she are walking on that shoes, all her friends, including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. The style, bright color, and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She really have perfect appearance. She is really mad on that shoes. She said that the products covered all genders. The blowfish men’s shoes are as elegant as she has. The products provide varieties of choice. Ballet, casual, boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. 1. B. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Generic Structure Analysis Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general; Borobudur temple Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis Using adjective and classifiers; valuable Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed, etc
Rabu, 26 Desember 2018
NRT vs CRT
In education, learning is a very important process. This process is having some objectives or goals to achieve. The teacher and the studenr are important factors of the teaching learning process. At the end of teaching learning process, it is necessary to evaluate the knowledge, skill, aptitude and educational objectives whether they are fulfilled or not. For this purpose different kinds of tests have been adopted by researchers and teachers. Various experiments are being tried for the improvement of education. There are two tests or assesment that can be used for the students. The tests are called as Criterion Referenced Test and Norm Referenced Test. In this essay the writer will tell about the definition of CRT, the definition of NRT, the history of NRT and CRT, some critics in CRT and NRT, the advantages of CRT and NRT, and its implementation in Indonesia and America. The first thing is about the defintion of CRT. The word "criterion" in CRT has been referred in two ways . First, criterion refers to the material being taught in the course. CRT would assess the particular learning points of a particular course or program. Second, criterion is the standard of performance that is used to decide what is being expected for passing the test or course. Here, CRT would be used to assess whether students pass or fail at a certain criterion level . CRT is a test that measures a test taker‘s performance according to a particular standard or criterion that has been agreed. The test taker must reach this level of performance to pass the test, and a test taker‘s score is interpreted with reference to the criterion score, rather than to the scores of other test takers (Richard & Schmidt 2002). After, the writer tells about the definition of CRT,the writer will explain the definition of NRT. NRT is a test that measures how the performance of a certain test taker or group of test takers compares with the performance of another test taker or group of test takers whose scores are given as the norm. A test taker‘s score will be interpreted with the scores of other test takers or groups of test takers (Richard & Schmidt 2002). Hence, NRT is an approach of evaluation through which a learner‘s score is compared to other students in the classroom After the writer has aready given the brief definition of CRT and NRT, the writer intends to give the explanation about the history of NRT and CRT. Actually the NRT test comes before the CRT. At that time norm-referenced tests were seen as limited source that provides a sequence of information needed by the teachers. The NRT is considered unfair as well. Until one day,the term criterion-referenced was first introduced in 1962 by Glaser and Klaus (1962). Glaser and Klaus published an article entitled ‘American Psychologist’ (Glaser 1963). He wrote the first paper about CRT since the scope and direction of educational testing has been changed dramatically. In 1970, Hambleton, Swan’rathan, Algina and Coulson (1978) calculated that more than 600 papers about CRT have been written. The papers had been written in the form of, journals, monographs, and books. During 1974 a monograph was also published. The monograph talked about the technical problems in criterion-referenced measurement which was edited by Chester W. Harris, Marvin C. Alkin, and W. James Popham. By the 1970’s , some experts edited monograph on criterion-based measurement. For example a monograph edited by Bunda and Sanders (1979), a monograph on criterion-referenced testing by Brown(1980) edited volumes by Jaeger and Tittle (1980) , and a monograph which was written im 1980 entitled ‘Applied Psychological Measurement’ examining the criterion-referenced testing technology which was edited by Ronand K.Hambleton. After the writer tells about the history of NRT and CRT, the writer will show several arguments which reflects a criticism made by some experts.The kinds of arguments typically made by the critics. The criticisms are about some problems that caused by the existence of NRT and CRT. The first criticisim was deliverd by Huitt in 1996. He said NRT scores are often misused in schools when making critical educational decisions, such as grade promotion, which can have a harmful consequences for some students. Since NRT form is presented in Multiple-choice test, the students do not get used to present their critical thinking and analysis (Corbet & Wilson, 1991). If the teaher overused the NRT asessment, it can result to inadvertent discrimination against minority groups and low-income student populations, both of which tend to face more educational obstacles than non-minority students and higher-income households (Bond 1996). The test in NRT is also considered biased by the experts because those questions are eliminated which low scorers might get right (Huitt ,1996). NRT has to be finished in a time limit which may favor or disfavor an individual student. After the writer shows some criticism in NRT, the writer will show the criticisim in CRT as well. Although most of the experts views that CRT has many advantages, it does have some lacks. The kinds of arguments typically made by the critics of NRT, Huitt . He views that CRT does not allow for comparing the performance of students in a particular location with national norms. For example, a school would be unable to compare 5th grade achievement levels in a district In the next paragraph, the writer will show some advantages and disadvantages of CRT and NRT. As we have known the experts claims that CRT brings numerous advantages. CRT is a good tool to measure specific skills, objectives or domain (Bond, 1996). It gives direction of how well students are learning. It is good to determine learning progress if students have learning gaps or academic difficulity that need to be solved (Bond 1996). The teachers can use the test results to determine how well they are teaching the curriculum (Bond, 1996). CRT helps measure the academic achievement of students usually for the purposes of comparing academic performance among schools, districts and states. The results provide a basis for determining how well the material which is learned by students and how well the educational system is producing results (Cohen, Manion & Morrison 2004). Beside its advantages, CRT also has a disadvantages. CRT does not allow for comparing the performance of students in a particular location with national norms. For example, a school would be unable to compare 5th grade achievement levels in a district. After the writer tells about the advantages and disadvantages of CRT. The writer will show, some advantages and disadvantages of NRT. NRT is a good tool to measures variety of skills and ability of a students. It helps to identify the students who may need special assistance for example mental disorder, learning disabilities (autism, dyslexia), attention disorder. NRT is also good for ranking and sorting students for administrative purposes since NRT is usually be used in academic aptitude test. Beside its advantages, NRT also bring some disadvantages. NRT is considered unfair by some experts. It is because the student who actually gets a low score, will get a high score because of the group average score. The test in NRT is also considered unclear since the questions in NRT test are eliminated and it will make the low scorers might get right. The last thing that will be discussed by the writer is the implementation of NRT and CRT in Indonesia and America. In Indonesia, most of the teachers still mix the NRT and CRT system since the students cognitive level is not well compared to the other nations. When the teacher gives a score in daily examination, she will use the CRT assesment. But when the teacher wants to process the score in the form of raport, the teachers will use NRT. The teacher will calculate the average, after she finds the group average, the teacher will find the deviation standar (SD).
Greeting (Ungkapan Salam) Ungkapan sapaan/salam dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu Formal dan Informal Greeting. Formal greeting biasanya digunakan pad...
Descriptive Text The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is...
Greeting (Ungkapan Salam) Ungkapan sapaan/salam dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu Formal dan Informal Greeting. Formal greeting biasanya digunakan pad...